Remember, Remember the 5th of November – Catholics, Witches and the Gunpowder Plot…

Currently, the BBC is showing the dramatisation ‘Gunpowder’ , which examines the facts (and gunpow1myths) surrounding Robert Catesby and the other Gunpowder Plotters. The leading role is taken by actor Kit Harrington who, through his mother, is a direct descendant of Robert Catesby.


The question, at the outset, is what exactly persuades a monied Catholic gentleman, with land and connections to risk all in a plot against the King and parliament? The answer is simple; circumstance.
As a child, I remember tripping over ‘Guys’ (clothes stuffed with paper or straw and made to look human) in the streets during the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, in my local town. Boys and Girls would collect money, ‘a penny for the guy’ , which would then go towards the purchase of fireworks for November 5th Bonfire Night celebrations.

This, most British of rites, began on November 5th 1605, when a man named Guy Fawkes was arrested whilst guarding explosives placed beneath the Houses of Lords in an attempt to bm_camp-fire_freeassassinate King James I. All but four of his fellow conspirators met their maker whilst being pursued but the King’s men in the ensuing days, however Guy, along with four lesser conspirators was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered – the traitors death. In reality Guy Fawkes leapt from the scaffold with the noose about his neck, which was broken instantly. He, at least, was dead by the time the more horrific elements were conducted. To celebrate the plot’s failure, people built and lit fires all over the city, this filtered through the rest of Britain too. Two years later the ‘Observance of the 5th November Act’ created an annual, public day of thanksgiving which, decades later, became ‘Gunpowder Treason Day’ – a name which had distinct Protestant connotation. At that time Protestant preachers delivered sermons, and effigies were burnt, many based on unpopular Catholics at the time.

The custom of building bonfires and burning effigies has been in the UK since 1605, but it also has a more macabre background, set in the darkness of the inquisitional crusades against religious factions, including Catholics and Protestants. The persecution of Catholics in the early Stuart period was reaching a crescendo; priests were being horribly tortured and murdered; almost with the same level of ferocity as the ‘Burning Times’ when so-called Witches were persecuted and hounded unto death. Even Noble families were given the same treatment.
For some bizarre reason, association with ‘The Burning Times’ sells drama – hence (spoiler alert if you not seen this program yet) the execution scene of Robert Catesby’s Aunt. Thismargaret characterbeing very loosely based upon the Yorkshire, Catholic Saint, Margaret Clitherow, one of the 40 martyrs of England and Wales who, at the age of thirty, and pregnant with her forth child, was tortured and finally put to death for harbouring Catholic priests during the later half of the 16th century. The BBC character, however, is blatantly designed to make her look like the classic 17th century witch; wild long grey hair, dirty white shift, blood on face, feet and hands. It is this imagery that sparks the imagination. However, in Margaret’s case, death came within fifteen minutes, and in the following days Queen Elizabeth herself wrote to the people of York, expressing her horror at such treatment. She argued that, as a woman, Margaret should not have been put to death in such a way.

However, many other Women also suffered, not only for their Religion but for their healing abilities and sometimes just because they were ‘different’. Bodies of purported ‘Witches’ have been found in peat bogs all over Europe, heavy weights having been placed upon them- superstition dictating that the witch be pinned into the ground, so as not haunt the tormentors.
For me, the fact that we are constantly reminded of these terrible atrocities against women of healing, power, beauty or wisdom, is most disturbing. However, persecution of Catholics and Protestants was also, let us not forget, an evil. Even today, we are still suffering, and still seeing the results of what happens when dissension in religion gets the better of us. It causes chaos and flames.


If Halloween is the night of the Celtic New Year, of ancestor worship, of feasting before the fast of winter; and of facing death head on, then we could suggest that Bonfire Night (and coincidentally, my birthday) reminds us of why we must always be aware, and careful what we worship and do on Halloween/Samhain, or we may find ourselves in a symbolic ‘Tower of London’ facing various torments too! It could also teach us a more positive message – that when we are about our business, of cunning craft and magic, we spare some of our time to look back into those terrible flames, and call the victims through to us, so that we can honour them today and give them food and drink in our offering to see them find peace.
A condemned witch from early 18th century Scotland was recently exhumed. Having escaped the flames, through death in captivity, her skull formed the basis for a recent reconstruction. Of course, this shows a woman not unlike any one of us today, so, perhaps it would be meet to honour her properly, and help her to become a symbol of the real victims of persecution.

witch scot


Samhain-Halloween Part 1:


The Customs & Traditions of Samhain-Halloween

It’s Punkie Night tonight
It’s Punkie Night tonight
Give us a candle, give us a light
It’s Punkie Night tonight.

One of the most important festivals of the Cunning Folk year is Samhain (pronounced Sow-en) or Halloween and, traditionally, each community throughout the country had their own rites and rituals on such a night. Upon this night we are brought closer to the dead; our forebears and ancient ancestors are said to walk the earth, and to appear to us in our dreams and magical workings, when the veil betwixt us and the other-world is at its thinnest.

The British Isles is richly blessed with such traditions. In Somerset it is known as Punkie Night and is still remembered in  Long Sutton, Hinton St George and Castle Neroche, in the Blackdown Hills. There is also a tradition in Ireland where it is called ‘Pooky Night’; in Wales, as ‘Pwca’, and in Cornwall as ‘Bwcca’. This is the original name given by the Ancient Britons to the Fae or Fairies, as they appear on this night to make mayhem, and to lead the Merry Dance. But beware, should they invite you in, you must be ready with your circle and iron to protect yourself.

On this night, swedes and turnips are carved into Jack O’ Lanterns, rather than pumpkins which are very much an American tradition. The lanterns keep away the darkness and protect all from evil. On Bredon hill, there is a belief that on Halloween night spectres of all the people who are fated to die in the coming year walk through the graveyard. If the macabre procession is disturbed, then the person watching will join them. In Gloucestershire’s Forest of Dean, a similar fate is shared by those who witness ‘The Wild Hunt’ on Halloween. Sabina Maglioco says,

‘The (sic) Wild Hunt is a generic name given to numerous folk myths associated with ‘soul-ravening’ chases, often led by a god, goddess, or mythological figure, accompanied by a cavalcade of souls of the dead;  opens awareness with the cyclical process of nature, through magical consciousness.”

The mythology of the Wild Hunt, as a language of magical consciousness, creates a framework to experience. This is the ‘throng of the dead’, consisting of anyone, from soldiers killed in battle to un-baptised children, and led by various mythological characters on a journey to the beyond.

Carlos Ginzburg refers to the re-enactment of this by,

 “…hordes of children and adolescents who scrambled through the villages there, as a representation of spirits of the dead.” These children, during the night of Halloween (31 October), constitute living examples of parallel customs all over the UK.

The ‘Wild Hunt’ is also rooted in  broader mythology and shares a common folklore theme. An example of this comes from Celtic Folklore of which Susan Greenwood says the ‘leader …Gwyn ap Nudd, who in Celtic folklore is a wild huntsman who rides a demon horse and hunts in waste places at night with a pack of white-bodied and red-eared ‘dogs of hell’, cheers on his hellhounds in a fearful chase…’[i]

Herne the Hunter is regarded as a magical wild wizard/huntsman living in the forest and is depicted wearing the horns of the Great God Cerne/Hern. The portrayal of Herne the Hunter in HTV West’s iconic 1980’s series ‘Robin of Sherwood’ has, in my opinion, never been bettered! The writers used the ‘Wild Hunt’ legends, along with Arthurian aspects, in the development of  ‘Herne-the-Hunter’, to invoke a more spiritual, Pagan aspect to this great story. Herne, in this series, was depicted as the Merlin of old.



image001.jpgFig 4.13 The cast of ‘Robin of Sherwood’ HTV series 1984-1986 filmed around the locale which ties in with Herne the Hunter and a Welsh Robin Hood Twm Shon Cati.



Photos from Robin of Sherwood, TV Series, relates to Herne-the-Hunter, both collected 07/05/2017 ;

Herne the hunter from Robin Hood series

The Witches Ways in the Welsh Borders

Local Cunning Folk and witches as practitioners of traditional magic, healing, ritualistic ceremonies and customs have been part of the Welsh Borderlands around the Wye Valley and Forest of Dean for many centuries and their ways have often come down from the ancient past. This book will take you on a journey where the greenwood, spirituality, ritualised practices, lifestyle and folklore will all come together to form the basis of an anthropological look at the cunning-folk ways, an ancient and contemporary analysis of Witchcraft with new historical evidence, and contemporary interviews with practitioners of magic.


It is about pagans and the continuity of a cunning practice in the author’s locale, one which is still practiced today. The author discovered new evidence suggesting that local cunning folk engage with ancient practices of Celtic deity worship involving an early British Goddess and her consort. The term ‘Wiccan’ (with two C’s), often used to describe ‘most’ witch practitioners today, has been misunderstood for years and is expressly distinct from contemporary cunning folk and witches who are of a ‘Wican'(with one C) tradition. The nature of this surprising distinction is discussed and evaluated.

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This book conveys the history of practitioners of Magic and Witchcraft in the borderlands of England and Wales (Albion and Cymru) from as far back as the fourteenth century.  It is the first contemporary academic study ever done on cunning folk living in this locale. Most primary written evidence of witchcraft has been handed down from nineteenth- and early twentieth-century writers. However, one rarely known writer, Margaret Eyre, who lived in the Wye Valley in the nineteenth century, made unique records of interviews identifying ancestral, familial, and local attachments to cunning folk. Much of this information did not come to light and was therefore never acknowledged by writers until this author discovered some rare archives of The Folklore Society. Little is known of Eyre’s role in The Folklore Society but she was the key to unlocking the secret occult history of this area and uncovering its continuous local tradition of witchcraft.

Available now on Amazon: The Witches Ways in the Welsh Borders


Welcome to Tamzin Powell’s Author Website



I am an academic writer, teacher, lecturer of Religious Studies & English, Anthropologist, Ethnographer and #Wica Pioneer. My latest book,  ‘The Witches Ways in the Welsh Borders: Ethnography of Contemporary and Historical Customs of Cunning Folk Magic’ out now on Amazon.

In this work, the culmination of over 14 years of research,  I met some wonderful people and was a witness to incredible feats of healing, magic and spell craft, all in my locale and on my doorstep. For the Wye Valley and Forest of Dean is resplendent with life; animals; some rare, thrive in this very beautiful environment in woods untouched for hundreds of years. From season to season they all stand proud along the valley corridor.

It is a powerfully spiritual place too, full of the energy of the goddess Abundantia, goddess of abundance and who also gave her name to this ancient forest,SamHain hence ‘Dean’. Her energy seems to vibrate all around us attracting spiritual/magical people and cunning folk.

My book describes this environment in minute details building on the historical past once discovered and written down by Margaret Eyre, a little known lady who lived in St. Briavels, in the latter part of the 19th century.  I also discuss  customs, life cycle rites, cultural identity, and practices of cunning folk, their idea of belief in Fairies, woodland deities, and duo-theistic worship.

It also records conversations with these contemporary practitioners of magic, witchcraft and alchemy and their rites, which led me to become a ‘Wican’ (one C) pioneer!